Groundwater References and Educational Material

"The science of hydrology would be relatively simple if water were unable to penetrate below the earth's surface"
-Harold E. Thomas



Introductory to Advanced Material



What is Groundwater?
A 2 page report, written by the U.S. Geological Survey, is
intended for those with little background or knowledge about groundwater and its use (USGS, 2001).



Basic Hydrogeology
A usefu
l resource for understanding the fundamentals of hydrogeology can be found at North Carolina's Department of Environment and Natural Resources, Division of Water Resources Basic Hydrogeology (NCDWR, 2012) page. Information on transmissivity, hydraulic gradients, Darcy's Law, etc. is available. Diagrams and problems with solutions are also provided.




Basic Ground-Water Hydrology
For an in-depth explanation of the basics of hydrogeology and a great reference guide, the "Basic Ground-Water Hydrology" by Heath (1983) is recommended. Last revised in 2004, this paper gives the reader a solid foundation into the world of hydrogeology by introducing basic elements and terms in a reasonably easy to comprehend manner. 







The Bureau of Reclamation's book, "Ground Water Manual" (BOR, 1977), is a publication designed as a practical reference guide that contains both introductory material and complex technical subjects. The second edition (1995), which can be downloaded at the bottom of this page, states in the preface, "Information is presented concerning such aspects as ground-water occurrence and movement, well-aquifer relationships, ground-water investigations, aquifer test analyses, estimating aquifer yield, data collection, and geophysical investigation."




Definition of Boundary and Initial Conditions in the Analysis of Saturated Ground-Water Flow Systems-An Introduction
Excerpt from abstract: "This report describes the properties of the seven most common boundary conditions encountered in ground-water systems and discusses major aspects of their application (
Franke et al., 1987)."









Methods of Determining Permeability, Transmissivity, and Drawdown
Compiled by Bentall (1963), and last revised in 1983, this document contains reports by Brown, Ferris, Jacob, Knowles, Meyer, Skibizke, and Theis.











Bentall, R. 1963. Methods of Determining Permeability, Transmissivity, and Drawdown. U.S. Geological Survey Water-Supply Paper 1536-1. 106 p.

Franke, O., Reilly, T., Bennett, G. 1987. Definition of Boundary and Initial Conditions in the Analysis of Saturated Ground-Water Flow Systems-An Introduction. Techniques of Water-Resources Investigations of the United States Geological Survey. 22 p.

Health, R. 1983. Basic Ground-Water Hydrology. U.S. Geological Survey Water-Supply Paper 2220. 91 p.

North Carolina Division of Water Resources (NCDWR). 2012. Basic Hydrogeology. North Carolina Department of Environment and Natural Resources. Accessed July, 2013. http://www.ncwater.org/Education_and_Technical_Assistance/Ground_Water/Hydrogeology/


U.S.Bureau of Reclamation (BOR). 1977. Ground Water Manual. A Water Resources Technical Publication. 695p.

U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). 2001. What is Groundwater?. Open File Report 93-643. 2 p
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BOR,1977.pdf
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